This article discusses the significant factors in the selection of forging equipment for a particular process. It describes the characteristics of forging hydraulic presses, mechanical presses, screw presses, and hammers. The article discusses the significant characteristics of these machines that comprise all machine design and performance data, which are pertinent to the economic use of the machines, including the characteristics for load and energy, time-related characteristics, and characteristics for accuracy.
The forging of metals and alloys is one of the oldest metal forming techniques used by humankind. Forging processes were improved over the centuries and are still being refined. Today, we are certain that there is no limit to these improvements and that we will never reach the point when we can say that nothing more is to be done. Despite the enormous knowledge and experience gained over the centuries, we still face new challenges arising from civilizational progress. One of them is the necessity to produce parts that are more and more complex in terms of shape and properties, which requires not only a deep insight into phenomena that accompany forging processes, but also the development of new techniques, riveting machine and equipment, materials, research methods, and tools, as well as the improvement of the existing ones. With the Special Issue on “Forging Processes of Materials”, the Editorial Board of Materials offers authors the possibility of presenting their findings in this field. As the Guest Editor for the Special Issue, I would like to invite you to contribute to this publication, which, I hope, will serve as a source of knowledge for both theoreticians and practitioners. Hence, I encourage authors to submit papers exploring, in a broad sense, the theory and practice of forging metals and alloys. I wish to assure you that we will make every effort to ensure the highest quality of this Special Issue.
An anvil is a large slab of metal, usually made of steel, which serves as the workbench for the blacksmith or automated hydraulic closed die forging hammer device. The metal is placed on the anvil, where it is hammered into the correct shape. Anvils traditionally provide a flat hammering surface, though curved anvil tops are available. A hardy hole and punch hole can sometimes be found on an anvil – the hardy hole serves as the square socket for accepting the shank of a hardy, an interchangeable tool in a variety of shapes used for cutoff, bending, etc. The punch hole provides clearance for punching holes in the metal.
Different forging processes are appropriate for different applications—options such as hot forging, cold forging, closed die forging, upset forging, and press forging are simply a few examples. Many of these forging processes require the use of a hammer to enable compression and shaping of the metal. Forging hammers vary in shape, size, and material based on the particular application, but all industrial hammers typically apply force with a large ram. Two basic types of hammers are:Closed die: Here, the metal is completely encased. When the CNC hydraulic die forging hammer or press pushes against the metal, the metal flows and fills the die cavity or cavities. Typically, the pre-forged part will have some resemblance to the final forging before it is placed in the die, preformed by a series of so-called blocker dies.