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Integrated Circuits IC
An integrated circuit ;(IC), also called a microelectronic circuit, microchip, or chip, is an assembly of electronic components, fabricated as a single unit, in which miniaturized active devices (e.g., transistors and diodes) and passive devices (e.g., capacitors and resistors) and their interconnections are built upon a thin substrate of semiconductor material (typically silicon). The resulting circuit is thus a small monolithic “chip,” which may be as small as a few square centimeters or only a few square millimeters. The individual circuit components are generally microscopic in size.
Integrated Circuits IC has two main advantages over discrete circuits: cost and performance. The cost is low because the chips, with all their components, are printed as a unit by photolithography rather than being constructed one transistor at a time. Furthermore, packaged ICs use much less material than discrete circuits. Performance is high because the IC's components switch quickly and consume comparatively little power because of their small size and proximity. The main disadvantage of ICs is the high cost of designing them and fabricating the required photomasks. This high initial cost means ICs are only commercially viable when high production volumes are anticipated.
A microcontroller ;is a compact integrated circuit designed to govern a specific operation in an embedded system. A typical microcontroller includes a processor, memory, and input/output (I/O) peripherals on a single chip.
Meba Automatic Voltage Regulators SVC-10KVA When the power network voltage fluctuates or the load varies, the automatic sampling control circuit will send a signal to drive the servo motor which can adjust the position of the carbon brush of the auto voltage regulator, then, the output voltage will be adjusted to rated value and get a steady state.
Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are integrated circuits often sold off the shelf. They’re referred to as ‘field programmable’ because they provide customers the ability to reconfigure the hardware to meet specific use case requirements after the manufacturing process. This allows for feature upgrades and bug fixes to be performed in situ, which is especially useful for remote deployments.
A capacitor ;is a device that stores electrical energy in an electric field. It is a passive electronic component with two terminals.
A ceramic capacitor uses a ceramic material as the dielectric. Ceramics were one of the first materials to be used in the production of capacitors, as it was a known insulator. Many geometries were used in ceramic capacitors, of which some, like ceramic tubular capacitors and barrier layer capacitors, are obsolete today due to their size, parasitic effects, or electrical characteristics.