Cast Iron Pipe Private1 week ago - Babe, Fashion, Home & Garden - Battambang - 9 views
Cast iron pipes can fail in many modes which in general can be summarized into two categories: loss of strength due to the reduction of wall thickness of the pipes, and loss of toughness due to the stress concentration at the tips of cracks or defects. Even in one category there can be many mechanisms that cause failure. The strength failure can be caused by hoop stress or axial stress in the pipes. A review of recent research literature (Sadiq et al., 2004; Moglia et al., 2008; Yamini, 2009; Clair and Sinha, 2012) suggests that current research on pipe failures focuses more on loss of strength than loss of toughness. As was mentioned in Section 3.3.7(b), the literature review also revealed that in most reliability analyses for buried pipes, multifailure modes are rarely considered although in practice this is the reality. Therefore the aim of this section is to consider multifailure modes in reliability analysis and service life prediction for ductile iron pipe. Both loss of strength and toughness of the pipe are considered. A system reliability method is employed in calculating the probability of pipe failure over time, based on which the service life of the pipe can be estimated. Sensitivity analysis is also carried out to identify those factors that affect the pipe behavior most.
Buried pipes are not only subjected to mechanical actions (loads) but also environmental actions that cause the corrosion of pipes. Corrosion related defects would subsequently cause fracture of cast iron pipes. In the presence of corrosion pit, failure of a pipe can be attributed to two mechanisms: (i) the stresses in the pipe exceed the corresponding strength; or (ii) the stress intensity exceeds fracture toughness of the pipe. Based on these two failure modes, two limit state functions can be established as follows.
Steel pipe is manufactured by the pit, horizontal or centrifugal method. In the vertical pit method, a mold is made by ramming sand around a pattern and drying the mold in an oven. A core is inserted in the mold and molten iron is poured between the core and the mold. In the horizontal method, a machine is used to ram sand around horizontal molds that have core bars running through them. The molten iron is poured into the molds from multiple-lipped ladle designed to draw the iron from the bottom to eliminate the introduction of impurities. In the centrifugal method (Figure 3.4), sand-lined molds are used that are placed horizontally in centrifugal casting machines. While the mold revolves, an exact quantity of molten iron is introduced, which, by action of the speed of rotation, distributes itself on the walls of the mold to produce pipe within a few seconds.
Since cast iron pipes are deteriorating rapidly and causing so many maintenance problems (Section 4.3.2), the distribution network is currently undergoing an extensive replacement scheme with old, leaking and corroded cast iron pipes being replaced by MDPE and uPVC. These new plastic pipe materials are thought to support fewer bacteria than the old hubless cast iron pipe. Their surface is smoother and therefore the surface area smaller and they are not subject to corrosion or biodeterioration.The Putney gas explosion was a real wake-up call, and accelerated the replacement of old gray ductile iron pipe fittings by polymers such as medium-density polyethylene (MDPE), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), and unplasticized polyvinylchloride (UPVC). HDPE has a tensile strength of ≈20–37 MN m−2 (which is more than adequate for typical internal pressures). Most importantly, though, it has a Young’s modulus which is ≈150–300 times less than cast iron. This means that HDPE pipes can deflect under misalignments of the kind experienced in the Putney explosion without reaching the fracture stress. Even better, over a long time the polymer also creeps, which further dissipates the stresses caused by misalignment. Polymers are also very resistant to corrosion, so should last indefinitely in the ground.By the 1870s, a 2000-mi network of small-diameter gathering lines connected the oil-producing areas with regional refineries and storage points on the railroads and rivers where the oil could be shipped to refineries via railcars or ships and barges. Typical crude oil trunk lines were constructed of 18-ft sections of lap-welded wrought steel pipe fittings 5 or 6 in in diameter joined with tapered, threaded joints manufactured specifically for pipeline service. The pipe was generally buried 2 or 3 ft below the ground surface. Worthington-type pumps were used as the motive power for the lines, and the pumps were powered by steam generated by coal-fired boilers. Pump stations were spaced as needed to maintain the flow of oil over the terrain crossed by the lines. At the pump stations, oil was withdrawn from the lines and passed through riveted steel receiving tanks some of which were 90 ft in diameter and 30 ft high holding about 35,000 barrels (The Engineering and Building Record, 1890; Scientific American, 1892; Herrick, 1949). Diesel-powered pumps began to replace steam power around 1913–1914 (Williamson et al., 1963).